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Project Sri Ramakrishna - Toynbee: Religion, Ethics, and International Business

Religions, Ethics, and Global Business

If a businessperson is operating in the global market, her or she should learn the foreign trade techniques (logistics, Incoterms® 2020, documents, customs), international marketing (distribution, prices, adaptation of the products, promotion policies), environment of the markets where he wishes to do business as well as the pillars of the Intercultural Management.

However, it is also necessary to know the largest religions of the World.

The Businessman needs to know the Religions of the World, because they influence significantly on the way of doing business in each market, especially in the “non-Western” countries.

The great part of humanity - Africa, Latin America, the Arab Countries, India, and Southeast Asia - is much more spiritual than the West, a factor that we cannot forget.

It is also highly recommended knowing the ethical principles of the Religions of the World for a personal enrichment, as a way to increase the wisdom of each person.

However, a businessperson needs to know them because they are Wisdom traditions of humanity that are the global ethics sources common to all the religions.

More and more some scholars advocate searching these ethical principles shared by all the faiths. Instead of looking for the differences, we should find the points of convergence, facilitating dialogue, international relations, and business.

In 1948, the great British historian Arnold Toynbee in is his essay “Civilization on Trial” said:

“Who are the greatest benefactors of the living generation of humanity? I should say Confucius and Lao Tzu, Buddha, the prophets of Israel and Judah, Zoroaster, Jesus, Muhammad, and Socrates.”

Ahimsa (Non-Violence) and International Business. Jainism

The mystic renovator of Hinduism, Sri Ramakrishna, at the end of the 19th century, introduced a crucial message: all religions are truthful (Principle of the Harmony of Religions).

Ramakrishna also said that religions are a path to reach God, but they are not God in absolute.

“God has made different religions to suit different aspirations, times, and countries. All doctrines are only so many paths, but a path is by no means God Himself

Everyone should follow his religion. A Christian should follow Christianity; a Muslim should follow Islam, and so on. For Hinduism, the old way, the way of the Aryan wises is the best.”

Looking to build a bridge between the West and the East, and given the importance and vision of Toynbee and Ramakrishna, this project is entitled:

Project Sri Ramakrishna - Toynbee: Religion, Ethics, and International Business.

This project has been developed under this point of view. The finite, created by human beings, such as churches, should be subject to the debate and criticism; but the infinite, the higher absolute reality is out of the human reach.

Religions, from a finite perspective, to be interpreted by the man, have positive aspects but also negative. There are many essays on the negative aspects of religions, a reality that history has taught us.

However, religions also have a positive side, as ancient wisdom sources, emanating the ethical principles shared by almost all the higher religions.

This will be another objective of this essay, find these common ethical principles shared by all the religions, focusing mostly on the positive side of the religions.

Analysing the ethical principles and sacred books of Jainism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam or Taoism is difficult to find negative values.

Concepts such as Ahimsa (Non-Violence), truthfulness, justice, philanthropy, respect for the environment, the universal golden rule will be common.

The Director of this project apologizes, whether through the ignorance or lack of information, has been able to offend to some follower of the analyzed religions.

Pedro Nonell Torres.


  1. Why study Religions and Business?
  2. Why do we need the global ethics?

Doctorate in Global Ethics, Religions, and International Business.

Doctorate in International Business (DIB) Online

Master in Religions and International Business.

Masters in International Business and Foreign Trade (MIB)

Online Student Master in International Business

Study Master Doctorate in International Business in Spanish Ética Negocios Study Doctorate in International Business in French Éthique globale.

Gita-Ramakrishna Institute.

(c) EENI Global Business School (1995-2023)
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Knowledge leads to unity, but Ignorance to diversity